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International Foundation for Optic Nerve Disease

Funding research and disseminating information on causes, prevention and treatment.
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 ^ Basement membrane (Basal laminae) Extracellular matrix arranged in a sheet. Serving the functions of structural support, sieving, controlling development, determining cell polarity, influencing cell metabolism, organizing the proteins in adjacent plasma membranes, inducing cell differentiation, and serving as specific highways for cell migration. The inner layer of Bruch's Membrane is one example important in the context of optic nerve and macular disease as it is the nutritional conduit at the vital parafoveal area where the central vision retinal ganglion cells are stacked very thickly.

Molecular Biology of the Cell online entry

Yurchenco PD, Schittny JC. Molecular architecture of basement membranes. FASEB J 1990 Apr 1;4(6):1577-90 PMID 2180767


 ^ BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor)


 ^ Behcet's disease Chronic relapsing syndrome of oral and genital ulcers and uveitis.


 ^ bFGF (Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor)


 ^ Bipolar Cell A type of retinal neuron which connects the retinal ganglion cells to the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones). They are of two broad types On-centre and Off-centre.


 ^ Blind spot (punctum caecum) Area in the temporal midline of the visual field representing the optic disk or area where the optic nerve exits the eye nasal to the macula. No retinal photoreceptors are here, so no visual data are available. Normally, we are unaware of the blindspot because of adaptation of visual perception at brain level. The oval shaped blind spot is easily mapped by closing one eye and focusing on a dot on the nasal side of a blank sheet of paper, then marking out the area where the tip of a pencil becomes invisible. see scotoma and visual field


 ^ Borrelia burgdorferi A tick born spirochaete bacteria which causes Lyme disease. Known to be a cause of ocular inflammation. For a short review of the direction of research into causes of eye inflammation see:

Okada,Annabelle A.; Forrester,John V. Ocular Inflammatory Disease in the New Millennium. Arch Ophthalmol. January 2000; 118;116-119.


 ^ Bruch's Membrane Thin basal layer of the choroid between the choriocapillaris and the retinal pigment cell layer. It has an elastic component from the choroid and a basement membrane component from the retinal pigment cell layer. Transport occurs across this membrane which nourishes the retina. Deposits in this membrane in macular degeneration are seen as macular drusen.


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