^ Death-factor Proteins such as Fas ligand and tumour necrosis factor (TNF), members of the cytokine group of proteins, which can help initiate apoptosis. They bind to specific plasma membrane receptors.
^ De Morsier's syndrome (Septo-Optic dysplasia)
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke article
^ Dendrite Process from nerve cell body which transmits signals toward the cell body from the synapse.
^ Diabetes Mellitus High blood glucose due to defect(s) in glucose/insulin metabolism. Retinopathy commonly occurs in poorly controlled or long term diabetes which results in diffuse visual field defects. This pattern contrasts with more localised patterns found in optic nerve diseases. Diabetes can also cause optic neuropathy. It is also associated with optic atrophy in some inherited diseases. e.g.DIDMOAD
Wikipedia diabetes mellitus
Wikipedia diabetic retinopathy
^ DIDMOAD (Wolfram Syndrome) The acronym is from: Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness. Diabetes insipidus is not required to make the diagnosis. So far two chromosomal gene mutations and possibly a mitochondrial DNA mutation have been implicated. OMIM DIDMOAD search
^ DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid The polynucleotide nucleic acid which holds the genetic code. Found in chromosomes of the nucleus of every cell and in a much smaller ring in each mitochondrion.
^ Drusen, Macular~, Optic Nerve~ Two unrelated disorders, drusen are seen with the ophthalmoscope as small yellow-white retinal or optic disc reflections respectively:
^ Drusen, Macular or Bruch membrane drusen in the macula are associated with age-related macular degeneration. Extra cellular material is deposited between between the basal lamina of the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch membrane They are classified as "hard" and "soft" based on their clinical appearance. Vitronectin is the dominant drusen deposit found so far in recent studies of Bruch membrane drusen with amyloid P component and apolipoprotein E also being found.
One form of autosomal dominant drusen, malattia leventinese, or Doyne honeycomb degeneration of retina (OMIM 126600) has been mapped to 2p.
Treatment trials with laser coagulopathy of foveal drusen for prevention of macular degeneration have shown equivocal results.
Hageman, Mol Vis 1999; 5:28 review of Bruch membrane drusen composition.
^ Drusen, Optic Nerve or optic disc drusen have been described as calcium deposits in the optic nerve head remaining after axon degeneration. They may be congenital or appear later in development. They may be seen on fundoscopy as an elevated optic disc (pseudopapilledema). If drusen are superficial, they may appear as yellow white reflections on or deforming the optic disc. They may or may not be associated other eye disorders or with visual loss. Optic disc drusen may be associated with vascular abnormalities in the eye, low retinal nerve fibre layer axon counts, glaucoma, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal hemorrhage, and premature visual loss. Drusen of the optic nerve head presenting as pseudopapilledema may be confused with papilloedema on fundoscopy if they are "buried" in the optic nerve head especially in children. B scan echography has been suggested as the best method of diagnosing optic nerve head drusen. They are unrelated to Bruch membrane drusen.
There is an association of optic nerve drusen with Alagille syndrome (AS), one form of familial intrahepatic cholestasis.
There is no treatment for optic nerve drusen.
A H Friedman, S Gartner, and S S Modi. Drusen of the optic disc. A retrospective study in cadaver eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 1975 August; 59(8): 413-421. PMID 1203227
Tso MO. Pathology and pathogenesis of drusen of the optic nerve head. Ophthalmology. 1981;88:1066-1080. PMID 7335311
Kapur R, Pulido JS, Abraham JL, Sharma M, Buerk B, Edward DP. Histologic findings after surgical excision of optic nerve head drusen. Retina. 2008 Jan;28(1):143-6. PMID 18185151
Kurz-Levin MM, Landau K. A comparison of imaging techniques for diagnosing drusen of the optic nerve head. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999 Aug;117(8):1045-9
Nischal KK, Hingorani M, Bentley CR, Vivian AJ, Bird AC, Baker AJ, Mowat AP, Mieli-Vergani G, Aclimandos WA. Ocular ultrasound in Alagille syndrome: a new sign Ophthalmology 1997 Jan 104:1 79-85 PMID 9022108
R Haynes, A Manivannan, S Walker, P Sharp, and J Forrester. Imaging of optic nerve head drusen with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Br J Ophthalmol. 1997 August; 81(8): 654-657.[links to PDF and pictures] PMCID: PMC1722286
PSEUDOPAPILLEDEMA OMIM 177800
Brodsky, MC. In: Congenital anomalies of the optic disc: Pseudopapilledema associated with optic disc drusen. Ch 3. pp 178-187 In: Miller NR, Newman NJ eds. Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-ophthalmology, 6th edition. 2005. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Google Books
^ Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy Optic neuropathy associated with thyroid disease. Most commonly it is associated with Graves' disease, an autoimmune hyperthyroid condition, which can cause eye disorders (dysthyroid ophthalmopathy) such as bulging eyes (exophthalmos) and extraocular muscle enlargement. Accurate early diagnosis is critical for medical or surgical treatment.
McKeag D, Lane C, Lazarus JH, Baldeschi L, Boboridis K, Dickinson AJ, Hullo AI, Kahaly G, Krassas G, Marcocci C, Marinò M, Mourits MP, Nardi M, Neoh C, Orgiazzi J, Perros P, Pinchera A, Pitz S, Prummel MF, Sartini MS, Wiersinga WM; European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO).Clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: a European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) survey. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Apr;91(4):455-8. Epub 2006 Oct 11. PMID 17035276
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