Send Comments to IFOND

International Foundation for Optic Nerve Disease

Funding research and disseminating information on causes, prevention and treatment.
Welcome | Impact | Glaucoma | LHON | Toxic | Ischaemic | Projects | Donors | Coping | Glossary | Links | Use | About | Contact | Donate
IFOND Dictionary: Index | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | NUM

IFOND research | LHON treatment prospects | Mitochondrial Genome Editing | COVID-19 and LHON | LHON talks | Pay it forward | Mitochondrial Regulation | Avoid BAK eye drop preservative, etc. | We experiment with cigarette smoke so you need not. | Viral vector trials | EPI-743 LHON trials | Idebenone LHON trials

Digests: NEI News | Mitochondrial Disease News LHON | ARVO Journals LHON | PubMed LHON | Europe PMC LHON | MRC-MBU news

Links: contents | collections | help | reviews | reprints | topics | articles | searches | journals | texts | dictionaries | schools| images


Note: the posting or linking of research, news, information or forum articles on this site does not mean that any proposed treatment methods are accepted or safe. Material posted here is FOR INFORMATION ONLY, and the INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN IS NOT AN ENDORSEMENT BY IFOND. If you seek treatment or preventative guidance, discuss this with your personal health professional.

Genetics [ Research Paths] [Top]

DeAngelis MM, Owen LA, Morrison MA, Morgan DJ, Li M, Shakoor A, Vitale A, Iyengar S, Stambolian D, Kim IK, Farrer LA. Genetics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Aug 1;26(R1):R45-R50. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddx228. Erratum in: Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Oct 1;26(R2):R246. PMID: 28854576; PMCID: PMC5886461.

Bernstein SL, Borst DE, Wong PW. 1995. Isolation of Differentially Expressed Human Fovea Genes: Candidates for Macular Disease. Mol Vis 1:4 PMID 9238082

MacGregor, S., Ong, J., An, J. et al. Genome-wide association study of intraocular pressure uncovers new pathways to glaucoma. Nat Genet 50, 1067–1071 (2018). PMID: 30054594 UWA free full text pdf

Hudson G, Carelli V, et al. 2007a. Clinical expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is affected by the mitochondrial DNA-haplogroup background. Am J Hum Genet. Aug;81(2):228-33.PMID 17668373 PubMed central free full text

Hudson G, Carelli V, Horvath R, Zeviani M, Smeets HJ, Chinnery PF. 2007b. X-Inactivation patterns in females harboring mtDNA mutations that cause Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Mol Vis. Dec 21;13:2339-43 PMID 18199976

Hudson G, Keers S, Yu Wai Man P, Griffiths P, Huoponen K, Savontaus ML, Nikoskelainen E, Zeviani M, Carrara F, Horvath R, Karcagi V, Spruijt L, de Coo IF, Smeets HJ, Chinnery PF. 2005. Identification of an X-chromosomal locus and haplotype modulating the phenotype of a mitochondrial DNA disorder. Am J Hum Genet. Dec;77(6):1086-91. Epub 2005 Oct 11. PMID 16380918

Kerrison JB, Arn VJ. 1999. Genetic Heterogeneity of Dominant Optic Atrophy, Kjer Type: Identification of a Second Locus on Chromosome 18q12.2-12.3 Arch Ophthalmol. June,117;805-810. PMID 10369594

Mackey DA. 1995. Recent advances in hereditary disease and neuro-ophthalmology. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 6:48-53. PMID 10160419

Reynier P, Penisson-Besnier I, Moreau C, Savagner F, Vielle B, Emile J, Dubas F, Malthiery Y. 1999. mtDNA haplogroup J: a contributing factor of optic neuritis. Eur J Hum Genet Apr;7(3):404-6. PMID 10234520

Wallace DC, Singh G, Lott MT, Hodge JA, Schurr TG, Lezza AM, Elsas LJ 2nd, Nikoskelainen EK. 1988. Mitochondrial DNA mutation associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Science. Dec 9;242(4884):1427-30. PMID 3201231

Population Studies (Epidemiology) [Research Paths] [Top]

Di Zhao, Juhee Cho, Myung Hun Kim, David Friedman, Eliseo Guallar. 2014. Diabetes, Glucose Metabolism, and Glaucoma: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PLoS One. ; 9(11): e112460.Published online 2014 Nov 13. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112460 PMCID: PMC4231045 PMID: 25393836

Y Jung, K Han, H.-Y.L.Park, C.K.Park. Diabetes & Metabolism Volume 44, Issue 4, September 2018, Pages 328-332. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of open-angle glaucoma development in Koreans: An 11-year nationwide propensity-score-matched study.

Bourne RR, Dolin PJ, Mtanda AT, Plant GT, Mohamed AA. 1998. Epidemic optic neuropathy in primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Br J Ophthalmol 82:232-234 (March) PMID 9602617

Chan C, Mackey DA, Byrne E. 1996. Sporadic Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Australia and New Zealand. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol Feb;24(1):7-14 PMID 8742999

Mackey DA. 1994. Epidemiology of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy in Australia. Clinical Neuroscience 2:162-164. Wiley-Liss. New York.

Sadun A. 1998. Acquired mitochondrial impairment as a cause of optic nerve disease. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 96:881-923 PMID 10360310

Sample PA, Plummer DJ, Mueller AJ, Matsubara KI, Sadun A, Grant I, Freeman WR. 1999. Pattern of Early Visual Field Loss in HIV-Infected Patients. Arch Ophthalmol 117:755-760 PMID 10369585

Family Studies [ Research Paths] [Top]

Gomez Zaera M, Barrientos A, Arias L, Rojas I, Arruga J, Estivill X, Casademont J, Nunes V. 1999 [An analysis of 6 Leber mutations in 31 individuals with optic atrophy. A study of its transmission in 5 families] Med Clin (Barc) Mar 13;112(9):326-9 PMID 10220763.

Johns DR. Genotype-Specific Phenotypes in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. Clinical Neuroscience 1994;2:146-150.

Sadun AA, Carelli V, Salomao SR, Berezovsky A, Quiros PA, Sadun F, DeNegri AM, Andrade R, Moraes M, Passos A, Kjaer P, Pereira J, Valentino ML, Schein S, Belfort R. 2003. Extensive investigation of a large Brazilian pedigree of 11778/haplogroup J Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. Aug;136(2):231-8. PMID 12888043

Sadun AA, Salomao SR, Berezovsky A, Sadun F, Denegri AM, Quiros PA, Chicani F, Ventura D, Barboni P, Sherman J, Sutter E, Belfort R Jr, Carelli V. 2006. Subclinical carriers and conversions in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: a prospective psychophysical study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 104:51-61. PMID 17471325

Tsao K, Aitken PA, Johns DR. 1999. Smoking as an aetiological factor in a pedigree with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol May;83(5):577-581 PMID 1021605

Neuroanatomy [Research Paths] [Top]

Bristow EA, Griffiths PG, Andrews RM, Johnson MA, Turnbull DM. 2002. The distribution of mitochondrial activity in relation to optic nerve structure. Arch Ophthalmol. Jun;120(6):791-6. PMID 12049585

Kwittken J, Barest HD. 1958. The neuropathology of hereditary optic atrophy (Leber's disease). The first complete anatomic study. Am J Pathol 34:185-207. PMID 13498139

Morgan et al. 1998. Deviant axons and glaucomatous damage. Editorial, Br J Ophthalmol 82:595-611 (June) BJO 82 (6) 680

Neurophysiology [Research Paths] [Top]

Bo Lu, Ning Yang, Kevin Huang, Ping Wang and Ning Tian. The Susceptibility of Retinal Ganglion Cells to Glutamatergic Excitotoxicity Is Type-Specific. Front. Neurosci., 15 March 2019 |

Andrews RM, Griffiths PG, Johnson MA, Turnbull DM. 1999. Histochemical localisation of mitochondrial enzyme activity in human optic nerve and retina. Br J Ophthalmol 83:231-235 ( February ) PMID 10396204

Cudeiro J, Rivadulla C. 1999. Sight and insight – on the physiological role of nitric oxide in the visual system. Trends in Neurosciences 22:109-116 PMID 10199635

Eriksson PS, Perfilieva E, Bjork-Eriksson T, Alborn AM, Nordborg C, Peterson DA, Gage FH. 1998. Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nat Med Nov;4(11):1313-7 PMID 9809557

Gould E, Tanapat P, Hastings NB, Shors TJ. 1999. Neurogenesis in adulthood: a possible role in learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3:186-192 PMID 10322475

Kalloniatis M, Marc RE, Murry RF. 1996. Amino Acid Signatures in the Primate Retina. J Neurosci 16(21) 6807-6829. PMID 8824321

Licinio J, Prolo P, McCann SM, Wong M. 1999. Brain iNOS: current understanding and clinical implications. Molecular Medicine Today 5:225-232 PMID 10322315

Reichelt W, Stabel-Burow J, Pannicke T, Weichert H, Heinemann U. 1997. The glutathione level of retinal Müller glial cells is dependent on the high-affinity sodium-dependent uptake of glutamate. Neuroscience Apr 77:4 1213-24. PMID 9130799

Sharp FR, Massa SM, Swanson RA. 1999. Heat-shock protein protection, Trends in Neurosciences 22:97-99. PMID 9130799

Vaney DI, Nelson JC, Pow DV. 1998. Neurotransmitter coupling through gap junctions in the retina. J Neurosci Dec 15;18(24):10594-602 PMID 9852595

Blood Levels Of Antioxidant Enzymes Linked To Cataracts, Retinal Disease.  Doctor's Guide News Item Glutathione optic nerve [PubMed search]

Biochemistry/Molecular Medicine/Cell Biology [Research Paths] [Top]

Sonia Emperador, Ester López-Gallardo, Carmen Hernández-Ainsa, Mouna Habbane, Julio Montoya, M. Pilar Bayona-Bafaluy & Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases volume 14, Article number: 150 (2019). Ketogenic treatment reduces the percentage of a LHON heteroplasmic mutation and increases mtDNA amount of a LHON homoplasmic mutation.

Zarnowski T, Tulidowicz-Bielak M, Zarnowska I, Mitosek-Szewczyk K, Wnorowski A, Jozwiak K, Gasior M, Turski WA. Kynurenic Acid and Neuroprotective Activity of the Ketogenic Diet in the Eye. Curr Med Chem. 2017;24(32):3547-3558. doi: 10.2174/0929867324666170509120257. PMID: 28486923 DOI: 10.2174/0929867324666170509120257

Harun-Or-Rashid M, Pappenhagen N, Palmer P, Smith MA, Gevorgyan V, Wilson GN, Crish SD, Inman DM. Structural and Functional Rescue of Chronic Metabolically Stressed Optic Nerves through Respiration. J Neurosci. 2018 May 30;38(22):5122-5139. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3652-17.2018. Epub 2018 May 14. PMID: 29760184 PMCID: PMC5977447 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3652-17.2018

Pflanz NC, Daszkowski AW, James KA, Mihic SJ. Ketone body modulation of ligand-gated ion channels. Neuropharmacology. 2019 Apr;148:21-30. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.12.013. Epub 2018 Dec 15. PMID 30562540 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.12.013

Green D, Kroemer G. 1998. Perspective-The central executioners of apoptosis: caspases or mitochondria? Trends in Cell Biology 8:267-271 PMID 9714597

Nicotera P, Leist M, Manzo L. 1999. Neuronal cell death: a demise with different shapes. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 20:46-51 PMID 10101962

Pena JD, Taylor AW, Ricard CS, Vidal I, Hernandez MR. 1999. Transforming growth factor isoforms in human optic nerve heads. Br J Ophthalmol 83:209-218 (February). PMID 10396201

Seigel G. 1999. The Golden Age of Retinal Cell Culture. Mol Vis 5:4

Sharif NA, Xu SX. 1999. Human retina contains polyamine sensitive [3H]-ifenprodil binding sites: implications for neuroprotection? Br J Ophthalmol. Feb;83(2):236-40. PMID 10396205

Touchette N. 1990. Man bites dogma: A new role for steroid hormones. Journal of NIH Research. 2:71-74 Medline search steroid hormones GABA receptors

Verkhratskya A, Toescu EC. 1998. Calcium and neuronal ageing.Trends in Neurosciences 21:2-7 PMID 9464677

Yen MY, Lee HC , Liu JH, Wei YH. 1996. Compensatory elevation of complex II activity in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol 80: 78-81. PMID 8664239

PubMed search: Complex I !

Molecular Basis of the Neurodegenerative Disorders. PubMed search.

Histopathology [Research Paths] [Top]

Chung HS, Harris A, Kagemann L, Martin B. 1999. Peripapillary retinal blood flow in normal tension glaucoma.[eBJO]. Br J Ophthalmol 83:466-469 ( April )

Dreyer EB, Zurakowski D, Schumer RA, Podos SM, Lipton SA. 1996. Elevated glutamate levels in the vitreous body of humans and monkeys with glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol Mar 114:3 299-305 PMID 8600890

Sadun AA, Kashima Y, Wurdeman AE, Dao J, Heller K, Sherman J. 1994. Morphological Findings in the Visual System in a Case of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. Clinical Neuroscience 2:165-172

Smith PR, Cooper JM, Govan GG, Harding AE, Schapira AH. 1994. Platelet mitochondrial function in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. J Neurol Sci Mar;122(1):80-3 PMID 8195807

Clinical Methods [Research Paths] [Top]

Bodis-Wollner I, Brannan JR. 1997. Hidden visual loss in optic neuropathy is revealed using Gabor patch contrast perimetry. Clin Neurosci 4(5):284-91 PMID 9292257

Garway-Heath DF, et al. 1999. Inter- and intraobserver variation in the analysis of optic disc images: comparison of the Heidelberg retina tomograph and computer assisted planimetry. Br J Ophthalmol. Jun;83(6):664-669 PMID 10340972

Kamal DS, Viswanathan AC, Garway-Heath DF, Hitchings RA, Poinoosawmy D, Bunce C. 1999. Detection of glaucomatous change in the optic disc by the Heidelberg retinal tomograph before detectable change in the visual fields, in a group of ocular hypertensives. Br J Ophthalmol Mar;83(3):290-4. PMID 10365035

Lüdtke H, Kriegbaum C, Leo-Kottler B, Wilhelm H. 1999. Pupillary light reflexes in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol Mar;237(3):207-11 PMID 10090583

Mojon DS, Herbert J, Sadiq SA, Miller JR, Madonna M, Hirano M. 1999. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy mitochondrial DNA mutations at nucleotides 11778 and 3460 in multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmologica 213(3):171-5 PMID 10202290

Velten IM, Korth M, Horn FK, Budde WM. 1999. Temporal contrast sensitivity with peripheral and central stimulation in glaucoma diagnosis. Br J Ophthalmol 83:199-205 (February) PMID 10396199

Wollstein G, Garway-Heath D, Hitchings. 1998. Identification of early glaucoma cases with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Ophthalmology Aug;105(8):1557-63 R. PMID 9709774

Diagnostic & Imaging Technology [Research Paths] [Top]

Fresco BB. 1998. A new tonometer--the pressure phosphene tonometer: clinical comparison with Goldman tonometry. Opthalmol Nov;105(11):2123-6. PMID 9818616

Smart phone fundoscopy From American Academy of Ophthalmologists

Optical Coherence Tomography Wikipedia

Wikipedia article on visual field testing.Wikipedia.

Optical Coherence Tomography PubMed Search

Tele-ophthalmology. Fundoscopic diagnosis at a distance and artificial intelligence screening.

Cheap portable OCT. Optical coherence tomography and visual field testing are required tools for monitoring and diagnosis of optic neuropathy.

Portable visual field testing. Portabilty and low cost opens the avenue for remote and patient centred monitoring and research.

Nutrition[ Research Paths] [Top]

Storoni M, Robert MP, Plant GT. The therapeutic potential of a calorie-restricted ketogenic diet for the management of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Nutr Neurosci. 2019 Mar;22(3):156-164. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1368170. Epub 2017 Oct 10. PMID:28994349 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1368170

Coleman AL, Stone KL, Kodjebacheva G, Yu F, Pedula KL, Ensrud KE, Cauley JA, Hochberg MC, Topouzis F, Badala F, Mangione CM. 2008. Glaucoma Risk and the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables Among Older Women in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Mar 19 [Epub ahead of print] PMID 18355790

Hsu CH, Cheng AL. 2007. Clinical studies with curcumin. Adv Exp Med Biol. 595:471-80. PMID 17569225

Mozaffarieh M, Flammer J. 2007. A novel perspective on natural therapeutic approaches in glaucoma therapy. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. May;12(2):195-8. PMID 17604496

Ritch R. 2007. Natural compounds: evidence for a protective role in eye disease. Can J Ophthalmol. Jun;42(3):425-38. PMID 17508040

Yu MS, Lai CS, Ho YS, Zee SY, So KF, Yuen WH, Chang RC. 2007. Characterization of the effects of anti-aging medicine Fructus lycii on beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Int J Mol Med. Aug;20(2):261-8. PMID 17611646

Food, Nutrition and the prevention of Cancer: a global perspective. World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research. 1997. [Home page]

Pharmacology/Toxicology [Research Paths] [Top]

Bodis-Wollner I, Chung E, Ghilardi MF, Glover A, Onofrj M, Pasik P,Samson Y. 1991. Acetyl-levo-carnitine protects against MPTP-induced parkinsonism in primates. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 3(1):63-72 PMID 2064731

Chung HS, et al. 1999 Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther.Jun;15(3):233-40. PMID 10385132

Eke T, Talbot JF, Lawden MC. 1997. Severe persistent visual field constriction associated with vigabatrin.[full text] eBMJ 314:180 (18 January)

Erb C, Nicaeus T, Adler M, Isensee J, Zrenner E, Thiel HJ. 1999. Colour vision disturbances in chronic smokers. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 237(5):377-380. PMID 10333103

Grunwald JE, Iannaccone A, DuPont J. 1999. Effect of isosorbide mononitrate on the human optic nerve and choroidal circulations. Br J Ophthalmol 83:162-167 ( February ) PMID 10396191.

Honjo M, Tanihara H, Kido N, Inatani M, Okazaki K, Honda Y. 2000. Expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor activated by retinal Müller cells in eyes with NMDA- and kainic acid-induced neuronal death. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Feb;41(2):552-60. PMID 10670488

Javaheri M, Khurana RN, O'hearn TM, Lai MM, Sadun AA. 2007. Linezolid-induced optic neuropathy: a mitochondrial disorder? Br J Ophthalmol. Jan;91(1):111-5. PMID 17179125

Kido N, Tanihara H, Honjo M, Inatani M, Tatsuno T, Nakayama C, Honda Y. Neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in eyes with NMDA-induced neuronal death. Brain Res. 2000 Nov 24;884(1--2):59-67. PMID 11082487

Onofrj M, Thomas A, Paci C, Rotilio D. 1998. Optic neuritis with residual tunnel vision in perchloroethylene toxicity. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 36(6):603-7 PMID 9776966

Rottenstreich Y, Kessler A. Late treatment of methanol blindness. Br J Ophthalmol 1997;81:415 (May)[Letter] PMID 9227212

Scrimgeour EM, Dethlefs RF, Kevau I. 1982. Delayed recovery of vision after blindness caused by methanol poisoning. Med J Aust 2:481-483 PMID 7155031

Zurakowski D, et al. 1998. Nitrate therapy may retard glaucomatous optic neuropathy, perhaps through modulation of glutamate receptors. Vision Res. May;38(10):1489-94. PMID 9667013

Tobacco alcohol amblyopia PubMed search

Vigabatrin PubMed search

Infectious Disease/Immunology [Research Paths] [Top]

Okada AA, Forrester JV.. 2000. Ocular Inflammatory Disease in the New Millennium. Arch Ophthalmol. January 118;116-119. PMID 10636424

Roman G, Sotelo J, Del Brutto O, Flisser A, Dumas M, Wadia N, Botero D, Cruz M, Garcia H, de Bittencourt PR, Trelles L, Arriagada C, Lorenzana P, Nash TE, Spina-Franca A. 2000. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease. Bull World Health Organ 78(3):399-406 PMID 10812740

Sample PA, Plummer DJ, Mueller AJ, Matsubara KI, Sadun A, Grant I, Freeman WR. 1999. Pattern of Early Visual Field Loss in HIV-Infected Patients Arch Ophthal Jun;117(6):755-760. PMID 10369585

Surgery [ Research Paths] [Top]

Berger A. Neural stem cells successfully transplanted (News)[full text] BMJ 1999;318:1575 ( 12 June )

Cho KS, et al. 1999. Synergistic effect of optic and peripheral nerve grafts on sprouting of axon-like processes of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult hamsters. Neurosci Lett. Apr 23;265(3):175-8. PMID 10327159

Dickersin K, Manheimer E, Li T. 2006. Surgery for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD001538. PMID 16437435

Stem cells optic nerve PubMed search

Information Technology [Research Paths] [Top]

Normann RA, Maynard EM, Rousche PJ, Warren DJ. 1999. A neural interface for a cortical vision prosthesis. Vision ResJul;39(15):2577-87 PMID 10396626

Visual cortex implant PubMed search

Consciousness Theory [Research Paths] [Top]

Farah MJ, Aguirre GK. 1999. Imaging visual recognition: PET and fMRI studies of the functional anatomy of human visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3:179-186 PMID 10322474

Zeman A. 1998. The consciousness of sight. [full text] eBMJ ; 317 (7174) 1696

Christof Koch Drs Koch and Crick studied the Neural Correlate of Consciousness. Allen Institute, Seattle

The Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics. Psychophysics - Visual Recognition

PSYCHE An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Consciousness

PubMed search phosphene

Quantum coherence microtubule PubMed search Herein find possible answers to consciousness, cancer, the definition of life and everything! see: Roger Penrose, Stuart Hameroff, etc. Orchestrated Objective Reduction

IFOND welcomes questions and comments
Welcome | Impact | Glaucoma | LHON | Toxic | Ischaemic | Projects | Donors | Coping | Glossary | Links | Use | About | Contact | Donate

Donate to IFOND sponsored research. You can designate which area of current IFOND activities to direct your funds:
>> Donate online <<
donate directly to IFOND at the address below:

The International Foundation for Optic Nerve Disease
P. O. Box 777, Cornwall NY 12518, USA.
Phone/Fax: (845)5348606
Web site:

IFOND is registered service mark of The International Foundation for Optic Nerve Disease, est. October 1995.

Copyright 1999-2023, International Foundation for Optic Nerve Disease.

The information contained on this website should not be considered medical guidance or professional advice. IFOND is not responsible for errors or omissions in information provided on this site or actions resulting from its use. IFOND does not publish all information from all available sources on optic nerve disease. IFOND is not responsible for the validity of the studies or reviews nor is it an advocate of studies or reviews mentioned on or linked from the IFOND web site. IFOND does not endorse or recommend participation in any particular clinical trial or treatment protocol which may be mentioned on this site. Direct any questions concerning your personal health to your appropriate health care professional.