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Note: the posting or linking of research, news, information or forum articles on this site does not mean that any proposed treatment methods are accepted or safe. Material posted here is FOR INFORMATION ONLY, and the INFORMATION CONTAINED THEREIN IS NOT AN ENDORSEMENT BY IFOND. If you seek treatment or preventative guidance, discuss this with your personal health professional.


Tyler Bahr, Kyle Welburn, Jonathan Donnelly, Yidong Bai. Emerging model systems and treatment approaches for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: Challenges and opportunities. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2020 Jun 1;1866(6):165743. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2020.165743. Epub 2020 Feb 24. PMID: 32105823 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2020.165743

In Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy— Light at the End of the Tunnel? Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology Volume 7, Number 4, July/August 2018. Ungsoo Samuel Kim, MD, PhD, Neringa Jurkute, MD, FEBO, and our IFOND board member Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, PhD, FRCOphth, outline modes of Mitochondrial protection, Mitochondrial biogenesis, Gene Therapy, Mitochondrial replacement therapy, and Pluripotent Stem cell therapy.

In Current and Emerging Treatment Modalities for Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: A Review of the Literature. Adv Ther. 2018; 35(10): 1510–1518. The authors review the literature and summarize treatment trials.

Is there treatment for Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy? Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2015 Nov; 26(6): 450–457. Jason H. Peragallo, MD and Nancy J. Newman, MD review treatment.

Neringa Jurkutea and Patrick Yu-Wai-Man. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: bridging the translational gap. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep; 28(5): 403–409. Published online 2017 Aug 10. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000410 PMCID: PMC5562441 PMID: 28650878

More generally:

Michio Hirano, Valentina Emmanuele, and Catarina M Quinzii. Emerging Therapies for Mitochondrial Diseases. Essays Biochem. 2018 Jul 20; 62(3): 467–481. Published online 2018 Jul 20. doi: 10.1042/EBC20170114 PMCID: PMC6104515 NIHMSID: NIHMS984793 PMID: 29980632 PMC6104515

Valero T. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20(35):5507-9. DOI: 10.2174/138161282035140911142118 PMID: 24606795

Carelli V, La Morgia C. Clinical syndromes associated with mtDNA mutations: where we stand after 30 years. Essays Biochem. 2018 Jul 20;62(3):235-254. doi: 10.1042/EBC20170097. Print 2018 Jul 20. PMID: 30030360

Patrick Yu-Wai-Man and Patrick F Chinnery. GeneReviews University of Washington online LHON review

John B. Kerrison and Nancy J. Newman. 1997. Clinical Spectrum of Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy. Clinical Neuroscience. 4:295-301 IFOND reprint

OMIM ENTRY 535000 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man LHON review.

Levin LA. 2007. Axonal loss and neuroprotection in optic neuropathies. Can J Ophthalmol. Jun;42(3):403-8. DOI:10.3129/can.j.ophthalmol.i07-046 PMID 17508035

PubMed query. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy review

PubMed query. LHON review


PubMed medline query. Glaucoma reviews

OMIM Glaucoma search National Institutes of Health Online Inheritance In Man.

Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy

PubMed query. Ischemic optic neuropathy reviews in last 2 years

Toxic Optic Neuropathy

PubMed query. Toxic optic neuropathy


PubMed query. Optic neuropathy reviews in last two years

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